Since the dawn of the history of science from Copernicus (who took the details of Ptolemy, and found a way to look at the same construction from a slightly different perspective and discover that the Earth is not the center of the universe) and Galileo to the present, we (a hoard of talking monkeys who's consciousness is from a collection of connected neurons − hammering away on typewriters and by pure chance eventually ranging the values for the (fundamental) numbers that would allow the development of any form of intelligent life) have gazed at the stars and attempted to chart the heavens and still discovering the fundamental laws of nature often get asked:
1. What is Dark Matter? ...
2. What is Dark Energy? ...
3. What Came Before the Big Bang? ...
4. What's Inside a Black Hole? ...
5. Will the universe continue expanding? Will it just stop or even begin to contract?
6. Are We Alone?
Beginning at Stonehenge and ending with the current crisis in String Theory, the story of this eternal question to uncover the mysteries of the universe describes a narrative that includes some of the greatest discoveries of all time and leading personalities, including Aristotle, Johannes Kepler, and Isaac Newton, and the rise to the modern era of Einstein, Eddington, and Hawking.
THE HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSE IN 1000 WORDS OR LESS
Big Bang: The model describes how the universe expanded from a very high-density and high-temperature state, and offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation whose temperature at any redshift z is: T = 2.725 ± 0.002 (1 + z) and, large-scale structure and Hubble's law (the farther away galaxies are, the faster they are moving away from Earth).
Big Bounce: It is a hypothetical scientific theory of the formation of the universe which boils down to the idea that the universe is caught in a cycle where it expands after the Big Bang, then begins to contract. It was originally suggested as a phase of the cyclic model or oscillatory universe interpretation of the Big Bang, where the first cosmological event was the result of the collapse of a previous universe − so in this way the universe would last forever, but would pass through phases of expansion (Big Bang) and contraction (Big Crunch). When it comes to models of the universe, the Big Bang theory is almost accepted as a fact. However, it's still uncertain, and some believe that the universe didn't kick-started with a bang, but a bounce.
Spontaneous creation: An interesting idea is that the universe could be spontaneously created from nothing and the problem of singularity can be avoided naturally.
in which our universe was born.
Inflation in which the Grand Unified Force was separated into the Four Forces of Nature as We Now Know Them, and the Universe started to Expand to Many Times Its Original Size by a factor of the order of 10 to the power of 26 over a time of the order of 10 to the power of −33 to 10 to the power of −32 seconds– Rapid expansion in which the universe cooled from about 10 to the power of 27 down to 10 to the power of 22 Kelvin, though not Quite as Quickly.
PARTICLE-ANTIPARTICLE ANNIHILATION in which All the Antiparticles in the Universe Annihilated Almost All the Particles, Creating a Universe Made Up of Matter and Photons and no antimatter.
DEUTERIUM AND HELIUM PRODUCTION in which Many of the Protons and Neutrons in the Early Universe Combined to Form Heavy Hydrogen and Helium.
RECOMBINATION in which Electrons Combined with Hydrogen and Helium Nuclei, Producing Neutral Atoms.
GALAXY FORMATION in which the Milky Way Galaxy was Formed – TURBULENT FRAGMENTATION in which a Giant Cloud of Gas Fragments broke into Smaller Clouds, which later Became Protostars – MASSIVE STAR FORMATION in which a Massive Star was Formed.
STELLAR EVOLUTION in which Stars Evolved and Eventually Died– IRON PRODUCTION in which Iron was Produced in the Core of a Massive Star, Resulting in a Disaster called SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION in Which a Massive Star Ended Its Life by Exploding – STAR FORMATION in which the Sun was Formed.
PLANETARY DIFFERENTIATION in which the Planet Earth was Formed – VOLATILE GAS EXPULSION in which the Atmosphere of the Earth was Produced – MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION in which Life on Earth was created.
PROTEIN CONSTRUCTION in which Proteins were built from Amino Acids – FERMENTATION in which Bacteria Obtained Energy from Their Surroundings – CELL DIFFERENTIATION in which Eukaryotic Life had a beginning.
RESPIRATION in which Eukaryotes Evolved to Survive in an Atmosphere with Increasing Amounts of Oxygen – MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS CREATION In Which Organisms Composed of Multiple Cells emerged – SEXUAL REPRODUCTION in Which a New Form of Reproduction Occurred and with the invention of sex, two organisms exchanged whole paragraphs, pages and books of their DNA helix, producing new varieties for the sieve of natural selection. And the natural selection was a choice of stable forms and a rejection of unstable ones. And the variation within a species occurred randomly, and that the survival or extinction of each organism depended upon its ability to adapt to the environment. And organisms that found sex uninteresting quickly became extinct.
EVOLUTIONARY DIVERSIFICATION in which the Diversity of Life Forms on Earth Increased Greatly in a Relatively Short Time – TRILOBITE DOMINATION In Which Trilobites (an extremely successful subphylum of the arthropods that were at the top of the food chain in Earth's marine ecosystems for about 250 million years) Ruled the Earth.
LAND EXPLORATION In Which Animals First Venture was Onto Land – COMET COLLISION in which a Comet smashed the Earth – DINOSAUR EXTINCTION In Which the Dinosaurs Died.
MAMMAL EXPANSION in which Many Species of Mammals was developed –
HOMO SAPIENS MANIFESTATION In Which our caveman ancestors Appeared.
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION in which something called curiosity ensued which triggered the breath of perception and our caveman ancestors became conscious of their existence and they learned to talk and they Developed Spoken Language – GLACIATION in which a Thousand-Year Ice Age Began.
INNOVATION in which Advanced Tools were Widely made and Used – RELIGION In Which a Diversity of Beliefs emerged – ANIMAL DOMESTICATION in which Humans Domesticated Animals.
FOOD SURPLUS PRODUCTION In Which Humans Developed and promoted Agriculture – INSCRIPTION In Which Writing was Invented and it allowed the communication of ideas.
WARRING NATIONS In Which Nation Battled Nation for Resources – EMPIRE CREATION AND DESTRUCTION In Which the First Empire in Human History Came and went – CIVILIZATION In Which Many and Sundry Events Occurred.
CONSTITUTION In Which a Constitution was Written – INDUSTRIALIZATION in Which Automated Manufacturing and Agriculture Revolutionized the World – WORLD CONFLAGRATIONS In Which Most of the World was at War.
FISSION EXPLOSIONS In Which Humans Developed Nuclear Weapons –COMPUTERIZATION In Which Computers were Developed.
SPACE EXPLORATION In Which Humans Began to Explore Outer Space – POPULATION EXPLOSION In Which the Human Population of the Earth Increased at a Very Rapid Pace.
SUPERPOWER CONFRONTATION In Which Two Powerful Nations Risked it All –
INTERNET EXPANSION In Which a Network of Computers Developed.
RESIGNATION In Which One Human Quitted His Job – REUNIFICATION In Which a Wall went Up and Then Came Down.
WORLD WIDE WEB CREATION In Which a New Medium was Created – COMPOSITION In Which a Book was Written – EXTRAPOLATION In Which Future Events were Discussed.